by Dept. of Glass Technology, University of Sheffield in Sheffield .
Written in English
Reprinted from the Transactions of the Society of Glass Technology, vol.19.
|Statement||by W.E.S. Turner and W. Weyl.|
|Series||Publications of the Department of Glass Technology -- no.331|
|Contributions||Weyl, Woldemar Anatol.|
|The Physical Object|
|Number of Pages||216|
From Roman times onward, glasses often contain about % to % manganese oxide (MnO). Later on, manganese dioxide (MnO 2) was sometimes called "glassmakers' soap." If pieces of decolorized glass containing reduced manganese are exposed to ultraviolet light for long periods of time, the manganese may become photo-oxidized. The Constitution and Colour of Polysulphide Glasses The Melting of Carbon-Amber (Sulphur) Glasses The Blue Sulphur Glasses Glasses Containing the Sulphides of Heavy Metals Equilibria between Sulphides and Silicates. The Striking of Colour in Sulphide Glasses. The Melting of Sulphide Glasses Iron(II) oxide may be added to glass resulting in bluish-green glass which is frequently used in beer bottles. Together with chromium it gives a richer green color, used for wine bottles.; Sulfur, together with carbon and iron salts, is used to form iron polysulfides and produce amber glass ranging from yellowish to almost black. In borosilicate glasses rich in boron, sulfur imparts a blue color. As the weight percentage of silica in the glass sample mixtures decreased, influence of the iron, manganese and alumina oxides created glasses darker brown in colour. According to an SEM micrograph (Fig. 2), the crust tailings were rounded to angular with a .
The addition of small amounts of iron oxide ( to %) to soda‐lime‐silica glass batches exerts a profound influence in increasing the output of glassmelting tanks as well as in favoring the production of higher quality glass. The color produced by this addition, moreover, is not . Early glass derived its color from impurities that were present when the glass was formed. For example, 'black bottle glass' was a dark brown or green glass, first produced in 17th Century England. This glass was dark due to the effects of the iron impurities in the sand used to make the glass and the sulfur from the smoke of the burning coal. Metals Used to Color Glass. The recipe for producing colored glass usually involves the addition of a metal to the glass. This is often accomplished by adding some powdered oxide, sulfide, or other compound of that metal to the glass while it is molten. The table below lists some of the coloring agents of glass and the colors that they produce. Iron and manganese control is the most common type of municipal water treatment in Minnesota. Iron and manganese occur naturally in groundwater. Neither element causes adverse heath effects at concentrations typically found in Minnesota. These elements are, in fact, essential to the human diet. Water containing excessive amounts of iron and.
The redox interactions of iron, manganese, and copper ion pairs including absorption characteristics in a multicomponent soda-lime-silica glass, were investigated. Glasses containing 11–19 mol % Na2O were melted under an air atmosphere in an electric furnace at °C for 8 h. The results of chemical analysis indicated that the redox pairs of Fe2+/Fe3+, Mn2+/Mn3+, and Cu+/Cu2+ shift to . Colour in glazes Yellow glazes When fired in oxidation, a small amount (1–5%) of iron oxide gives a honey- or amber-yellow colour. Iron oxide in a barium glaze high in zirconium will also give a yellow colour in reduction. Iron oxide was used in low-fired yellow porcelain glazes in. Manganese: uses (1) Metallurgical applications; Steel making; At present steel making accounts for 85% to 90% of total manganese consumption. Manganese is often used by the steel industry in deoxidizing and desulfurizing additives and as an alloying constituent. It can improve the rolling and forging qualities, as well as the strength, toughness, stiffness, hardness, wear resistance, and. In aquifers, where oxygen content is low, reduced forms of iron and manganese predominate in clear and colorless forms. When water from aquifers containing iron and manganese is exposed to air, these elements are oxidized (combine with oxygen) to less water soluble forms. Upon oxidation, colored forms of iron and manganese become visible in water.